Negara Islam pertama

Negara Islam dari Madinah

Perkataan Islam berasal dari akar perkataan Silm atau Salama yang bermaksud untuk memberikan keamanan dan keselamatan, apa-apa perbuatan yang bertentangan dengan keamanan dan keselamatan umat manusia tanpa mengira agama, bangsa dan warna, dianggap sebagai tidak Islamik atau anti-Islam. Penghijrahan Rasulullah (SAW) dari Makkah ke Madinah adalah salah satu contoh terbaik untuk memahami kepentingan keamanan dalam agama Islam. Selepas ikrar taat setia yang pertama yang berlaku di mina antara dua belas orang Madinah yang datang untuk memeluk agama Islam dan Nabi Muhammad (saw) mengisytiharkan mereka sebagai wakil-wakilnya ke Madinah dan memberikan khutbah pertama Islam kepada mereka supaya untuk memperkenalkan agama kepada orang-orang Madinah. Khutbah ini dinyatakan dalam beberapa buku sejarah Islam oleh pelbagai pihak berkuasa Islam dan ia sebulat suara diterima diragukan lagi, ia terdiri daripada tujuh mata yang dinyatakan seperti berikut.

(Rest document is in English…)

  1. To be faithful and obedient to almighty Allah (SWT).
  2. After embracing Islam, there should not be any kind of theft in your life.
  3. Commitment of adultery or any kind of sexual abuse is unacceptable in Islam.
  4. No human beings can be killed.
  5. No placing of false allegations against anybody.
  6. No backbiting for anybody.
  7. Practice every good and abstain from every evil.

(Ref: Ibn Hisham, as-Sirat-un-Nabawiyyah, vol : 2, pg : 281)

Among the seven aspects only one aspect discusses the faith/religious matter and all the other six aspects emphasizes on reforming and refining the moral behaviour of human life. These aspects aim at protecting people from all kinds of social crimes and are secular in nature. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) gave his first official public lecture after migration to Madina (as they were tortured and forced by the people of Makkah to migrate)  on the first Friday at Mosque while he was travelling from Quba to Madina. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

  1. “Worship almighty Allah (SWT)
  2. You should be truthful in your life.
  3. Love everyone in your society.
  4. Fulfill the promises and commitments you make.
  5. Differentiate between lawful and unlawful in your life.
  6. To behave in a good manner with others”.

(Ref: Ibn Hisham, as-Sirat-un-Nabawiyyah, vol : 3, p: 30)

The Prophet (peace be upon him) after being tortured and forced by the Makkans to migrate, did not mention about any kind of revenge from the people of Makkah but instead he talked about spreading love, peace and humanity among the people of Madina”.

The first written constitution of Madina was drafted by Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and declared to the people of Madina which included Muslims who migrated from Makkah, local Muslims, Jewish people living in Madina, other non-Muslims and their non-Muslim allied tribes.

This written constitution provided the Madanian society with the concept of devolution of powers, which later became the practical foundation of democracy. It provided moderate and balanced aptitude towards all communities living in the society and gave the idea of a geographical nation for the first time in the history, which included all faiths and cultures together in a single nation. The rule of law emerged out of this constitution. It gives the concept of respecting the local customary laws of all tribes and religions living in the society. It guarantees protection of human rights, women rights, social rights, cultural rights, religious freedom, and rights of minorities living in the state. The text of this written constitution consists of 47 articles compiled by Dr Hamidullah. He compiled these articles using various original Islamic souses. Later Dr Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri further divided and categorized these articles into 63 constitutional articles. This written constitution declares Madina as a state of peace and security, free from every kind of violence and terrorism.